Tuesday, January 6, 2015

Student as Scribe

In this post an assigned student will provide a summary of the days lesson. Was there an assignment or reminders? This should include a summary, how the lesson relates to the "essential question" or "big idea", helpful maps, links, videos, etc. that would be useful to understand or review the day's lesson. This is worth up to 15 points and will be graded on content, creativity, effort and timeliness. Your initial post is due one day after your assigned class, but feel free to add to it as your understanding of the topic expands. At the top of your post you must put the date you are scribing about and your scribe number!
3 reasons for this assignment: 
1. Allows one student to dig deeper into a given topic and do some research, critical thinking and even teaching. 
2. Help anyone who missed that day for whatever reason. 
3. If we do this right this should be a great tool to use when preparing for tests. 


  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

  2. January 9th, 2015. Scribe Number: 1
    Today class started off with questions about the syllabus. One of the seniors asked if they have to take the semester, and they do but they will take the test ahead of time. An other person asked about how we are graded by timeliness on our blogs. We will do quite a few blogs to do and they must be done on time. After that we went back into our game that we will playing when the bell rang on Thursday. One topic we discussed was disease and we concluded that there was no cure for what you had, so you were more than likely to just die of your sickness/illness. We also talked about government. Back in 1500’s there was no republican or democracy but here was a monarchy with a king and queen. With that we concluded the fame and moved on.
    Then we got into the unit about the 1500’s and got into small groups to discuss what was improved since then. Our class came up with this list; freedom, health/medicine, religion (not as powerful), education, rights, technology, and transportation. We also discussed how religion and government is different from then to now. Mr. Pauk asked us if a poor person today is better off than a king back then. Our class concluded that a poor person today is better because of their life expectancy and they live more comfortably; heat, shelter, air conditioning, medicine, pain relief, etc. Then class ended with Mr. Pauk telling us not to forget about our intro blog, and to look up Jan Hus.

    1. Good, but to be excellent you need to add a link to a helpful video, website, article, etc.

  3. January 12, 2015
    Scribe Number: 2

    The main topic of today was history up to the 1500's. We briefly discussed the Roman Empire up until it fell from power around 500 AD. After the Roman Empire collapsed, the Dark Ages took place. Europe was a disaster. The plague was going around, there wasn't much advancement of anything, and there were several city-states with a lot of different rulers who had wars among one another. It was noted that we will refer to both the areas that currently make up Italy and Germany as their current names, even though neither countries were in existence. Finally, in the 1500's, civilization was mostly restored. The major power of Europe was the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was the richest entity around, and with their money came a great deal of power. The church and many people within the church became very corrupt. Instead of focusing on religion, the focus was mainly on money and power. One major way money was raised was by selling indulgences. Basically, these indulgences were sold as tickets to heaven. Supposedly, an indulgence would send you are a love run straight to heaven instead of purgatory. Purgatory is the place where people go after death, before heaven. Almost everyone is considered to go here, except for those who go straight to hell. You cannot go to hell from purgatory. Basically, the only people who went straight to heaven were true saints. What was the money used for from these indulgences? They were used to build the Vatican. The Vatican includes the Sistine Chapel and all of the magnificent artwork and sculptors. Tax money also went to the Vatican. The Pope was the person with the most power during the 1500's, and although him and the workers under him were considered extremely corrupt, not all Catholics are corrupt. At this time, the Catholic religion could be split into two: Church of piety (those who were truly religious) and Church of power (those who were corrupt.) There were many problems within the church including nepotism, which shouldn't have been an issue considering no one with high power in the church should have direct family such as a wife and children. Not many people went against the church, because going against the Catholic Church would cause a great deal of trouble. However, Martin Luther did just that. Martin Luther was a monk who felt he wasn't religious enough. He was truly religious, and he would do anything to get to heaven. His career was teaching students the bible. There was an obsession with hell during the 1500's, and Martin Luther greatly feared going there. Yet, he started a revolt against the church by posting his 95 Theses. These were 95 statements/questions he had about the Catholic church including purgatory, indulgences, and mentioned why he was not a fan of the Pope. His main plan was to not start any problems, but to simply start discussion.

  4. Excellent example of a scribe! Also a video that all should watch!

  5. Friday January, 16
    Scribe #6

    We started class by taking a quiz so make sure you are keeping up on the reading and paying attention in class. Friday was also an online day. We were assigned a blog that doesn’t count as one of your blogs for the blogging period. For the blog you must; choose one aspect of society (family, work, economy, rights, personal relationships, etc.) in the 17th & 18th centuries and go into some detail concerning that aspect of life. (a regular researched post) Pay particular attention to how life was FUNDAMENTALLY different than it is today and/or how life was essentially different for one member of that society compared with other members of that same society. The best place to start out on this would be to look in your book in Chapter 15. This is due January 23 but you will want to get it done soon because there can’t be more than 2 posts on the same topic so once a topic has been discussed twice you have to find something else.
    Also for Monday you are suppose to read the Britain section of the chapter. For Wednesday you will have to read France section.


  6. January 13, 2015
    Scribe: 3

    Today, the main idea of our discussion was about how different types of Christianity rose up and why. Since Martin Luther was able to create his own form of Christianity, other people, mostly rulers/lords, decided to create their own form of Christianity, such as Calvinism or Anglican. After Martin Luther, John Calvin decided to create his own religion called Calvinism, which is very similar to Lutheranism in that there is nothing between God and an individual. Anglican was created by King Henry Vlll of England eventually so that he could divorce his wife since that was not allowed in the Catholic religion. King Henry wasn't very religious though, so Anglican was not so much different than Catholicism. It was only different in that one could divorce being Anglican rather than Catholic.
    Over time, the whole continent of Europe was divided by religion. Most of southern Europe was Catholic since Rome is the origin of Catholicism. From areas in Germanic region on north, that area was mostly Lutheran. England was Anglican and Scotland, which is directly north of England, consisted of Puritans (Calvinistic). All of this diversity of religion in Europe led to events such as the Spanish Armada, which was a fleet of 130 ships from Spain sent to England to influence them to convert back to Catholic. The Armada was not at all successful though.
    All because Martin Luther created Lutheranism and changed some things within the bible, other people believed they could do the same, which resulted in many other types of Christianity. If it weren't for Martin Luther, there probably would not be different forms of Christianity, just Catholicism.
    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTGJMnTWrrw

  7. January 14, 2015
    Scribe #5

    Today Mr. Pauk asked us our thoughts on the conundrum he proposed yesterday. The protestant conundrum was the fact that protestants don't follow the church councils, yet they were the ones who put together the bible. The Catholic conundrum was can there be purgatory if you get to heaven by faith? We are supposed to blog about it if we have any other thoughts. The main topic of the day was the spread of Protestantism. Because Luther went against the Catholic church and created his own religion, he opened the door to let others do the same. These new religions included Calvinism, which has a very strict moral code, also known as Puritans. There is also the creation of the Anglican church in England, which is almost identical to the Catholic religion except the fact they could get divorced in the Anglican church. We also talked about the affects all these events had. The major effect was the Council of Trent, during which the Catholic church pretty much cleans itself up of all the corruption and secularism.

    More about the Protestant Reformation

  8. January 19th, 2015
    Scribe Number: 7

    Today, class started with a quiz on socractive.com over our reading on Chapter 13, covering Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries. During that time, England and France were the two main superpowers in the world and both were ruled by monarchs. Which is why we began with Britain. The point of this chapter is to show us the process that this area of the world went through to break out of absolute monarchy. This process would end up taking hundreds of years, and in the end, Britain would still end up with a monarch. However, the main focus today was the role that religion played in all of this. Like every other aspect of life in Europe (and just about everywhere else at the time), everything was centered around religion, especially the government. It was believed that monarchs were specifically chosen by God to rule, that they had a divine right. Divine rights gave the king power over everything, and more importantly, a way into heaven. This all changed when parliament limited the kings power with the Magna Carta. The king could no longer take away people’s land, possessions, or rights. Why is this such a big deal? WE SAID “NO” TO A KING. This put England in motion towards a constitutional monarchy. After Henry the 8th and his many wives, came James I. His rule brought many new problems to England. The country thought that their religion was set as protestant, but James 1 had a Catholic wife, which meant that their children would be Catholic, and therefore meaning that England would have to be Catholic again.

    Assignment: continue reading chapter 13 to better understand Britain, and continue blogging.


  9. Scribe #4 January 14, 2015

    On January 14th we talked mostly about how Catholics started changing into a less corrupt church and about the Council of Trent. When Martin Luther put his 95 thesis on the front door of the church many people agreed with his thoughts about the church being corrupt. Because of this the Catholic church lost many members to Lutheranism. The Catholic church then realized that if they did not change their ways then they would keep losing members, and the more members they lose the more power they lose. They became less corrupt by not letting money influence positions in the church as much. They also admitted that indulgences were wrong. Shortly after this is when the Catholic church decides to start schools. They do this so they can teach kids how to be Catholic. They assume that if you are taught that Catholic is the right religion then you will stay Catholic for the rest of you life. These schools also teach the kids how to read so they can read the bible. These Catholic churches were the first school around. This is why we today have schools. Only 60% of Europe had been Catholic before the Council of Trent and after they made the changes 80% of people were. This was success for the Catholic church because they would have continued to lose members if they would not have made these changes and eventually they would not have been the dominate power in Europe anymore.


  10. January 22, 2015
    Student Scribe #9

    The main topic of class is how we got to where we are today. How we became a democracy and have the rights we have. Originally in England, the King has the divine right and rules with absolute monarchy. However, in 1642, England went into a Civil War. The Parliament, which was dominantly Puritan, went to war against the King, who is Anglican. The reason the war began was because the Parliament wanted the King to have less power. Led by Oliver Cromwell, the Parliament won the civil war. After Cromwell passed away in 1658, King Charles II was returned to rule England, with limited power. After Charles II passed away, his son James II inherited the throne. One of the major problems with James II was that he had married a Catholic. Catholics weren’t widely accepted at the time and children with a Catholic parent were required to be baptized as Catholics. This meant the royal family would be Catholic. The Parliament responded by bringing William and Mary, who were related to the King, to come and take over England. James II retired instead of fighting, and this is now known as the Glorious Revolution. Parliament is showing its power by getting rid of two kings in less than 50 years and shows that the King no longer has absolute power. When William and Mary took the throne, they were required to sign the Bill of Rights in order to rule, which granted Englishmen certain rights. While this didn’t include women and people of lower classes, it was one step closer to democracy. America took the British idea of the Bill of Rights when forming a government. After the reign of William and Mary, Queen Anne passed away childless, leaving no heir to the throne. Instead of electing a noble to take the crown, England went to Germany to the Hanoverians. They brought back George I to rule England, because he had royal blood. George I had no interest in ruling England, so he elected Sir Robert Walpole to support him. Walpole is now known as England’s first prime minister. This gives way to the prime minister further limiting the King’s power and taking control of the central government. Today’s Prime Minister of England is similar in power to America’s President. Today, England still has a Queen, but is ruled by a constitutional monarchy.


  11. January 23, 2015
    Student Scribe #10

    To start off class today, we reviewed the questions that were assigned to us. We discussed French Absolutism. We discovered that Louis XIV led France to absolute monarchy. We mainly discussed the successes and failures of Louis XIV’s reign. His successes were how powerful he had become. He built a marvelous building called the Versailles. This showed that he could outspend the nobles and be more powerful than any of them. With the successes, Louis XIV also had some failures. He revoked the Edict of Nantes which was the only statement to give people some sort of religious freedom. By getting rid of this, it caused him to lose the support of important people. His biggest failure is that he couldn’t expand his land because other countries would form alliances against him. Towards the end of class, we mostly worked on the projects assigned to us. Everyone was assigned a country and had to decide if they were a “winner” or a “loser.” My group had the Habsburg Empire and Prussia. We discovered that they were both winners with their influence, power, and money. Everything that we are learning right now ties together to show us what times were like back then and how every step in history helps lead to our democracy and how governments work today.

    Here is a link that goes into detail of Louis XIV reign:

    work on projects, blog, and prepare for test on thursday

  12. January 27th, 2015
    Scribe #11

    Today in class, we had two presentations over countries in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. The first presentation was over Russia. In Russia, Peter the Great wanted to modernize Russia more. Peter the Great did this by protecting the power of the tsar from jealously and greed, and by increasing military strength. Peter also had some reforms. One of these was the Table of Ranks, which said that lineage would no longer determine social standing. That way, a job isn't passed down through the family. Peter also moved the capital of Russia towards the west, so that he could be closer to the nations in Europe, as Europe was the most powerful part of the world in this time. Peter was a great ruler, but after he died, Russia was in a mess, so Russia was a loser.
    The second presentation was over Prussia and the Habsburg Empire. The Habsburg Empire included the areas of Austria, Hungary, Netherlands , and Bohemia. Charles VI, the head of the house of Habsburg set up Pragmatic Sanction, which allowed the rule of the throne to be passed down to a daughter. His daughter actually improved the empire by a lot and was a good leader. The Habsburg Empire was powerful, but not powerful enough to compete with the other nations, so it was a loser. Prussia is what is today Germany. Prussia had a large and efficient economy and was a very good empire. Frederick William I set up a permanent system of taxation and built up an efficient army. Frederick William II expanded the empire even more. Prussia was one of the biggest winners out of this whole time period. This is significant as Prussia set the stage for the future of Germany, which is a very important country later on in history.


  13. Summary of Russia-winners or losers projects
    So to start off with Russia we have to know that it is not like the rest of the world. At this time, Russia is way behind; it is more of a medieval country than modern. Compared to Europe it is about 200-300 years behind. Ivan the terrible came into power and was the dictator. With his power, he executed over 3000 men.
    Peter the great finally comes into power with some fight with his half sister, but eventually he has total control. As ruler, Peter establishes an army and brings many European values into Russia. He creates a new senate and a school of math and science. His biggest achievement would be that of the table of ranks, which said that the ruler at the time got to choose who’s in control. This created tension between the noble, since it was no longer the name that kept them in a high position, but actually being competent to handle the job well.
    Government was a big part of the changes going on in Russia. They created a senate and had 8 equally divided governorates. They said the more rural the more the government takes care of it.
    Peter the great even moved the capital to St. Petersburg, after of course taking over Sweden. This created access to the sea or a port to trade easier. Before Peter, there was only one real seaport and he searched for warm water ports until he found one.
    Another one of Peter’s ideas was to bring the church into the government. Peter the great tried so hard to modernize Russia. While he made a lot of progress it wasn’t enough. Russia was never a winner, they started from the bottom because they were so far behind, but they couldn’t catch up in this amount of time. This makes Russia a loser.

  14. Be sure to focus on Peter and his various Westernization policies as you review.

  15. Winners
    In the 17th and 18th centuries, there were many countries that had fallen from power to become “losers.” Some countries however, built up their power to become “winners.” Prussia was known as one of the biggest winners in the 17th and 18th centuries because of the powerful army, government, and economy. The Hapsburg Empire was also declared a winner. Most winners became some of the most powerful countries.
    Prussia became one of the most powerful countries in the 17th and 18th centuries. When Prussia first became a country, they started off very small. Frederick Williams I built Prussia into a very powerful country with a strong government and economy. They also had the most powerful army in the world. Every citizen trained for the war, but they did not fight unless they were needed. They had a very strict training and had specific plans for attacks. All of their enemies were scared of the their powerful army.
    The Hapsburg Empire was also a winner. Charles VI was the ruler of the Empire. He did not have a son, so his daughter gained power of the country to keep it in the family heritage. This was known as the Pragmatic Sanction. They used arranged marriages to gain land and also married people from the Netherlands and Austria to gain more land. The Hapsburg Empire was never very powerful, but they were able to hang onto the government for hundreds of years., which made them winners.
    In conclusion, Prussian was one of the most powerful winners because of their strong army, government, and economy. Hapsburg was also considered a winner because they didn’t lose anything, but they also didn’t win anything. The 17th and 18th centuries were comprised more of losers, but there were also some winners.

  16. Losers
    There were many wars, reformations, and advancements being made in the 17th and 18th centuries. This paper will specifically highlight the countries that seemed to have the most trouble throughout this time period and may be considered losers. The countries that will be discussed are Russia, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, The Ottoman Empire, The Netherlands, and Italy. A few of these countries had some positive things happening, but in the end they were deemed losers because of having too many losses, not being able to keep up with the times, or not being able to hold and control their own land.
    Russia was a loser because they started about 300 - 400 years behind everyone else and they had very little to do with the rest of Europe at this time. Russians still lived as if they were in medieval times and still looked and acted like barbarians. Although Peter the Great came along and helped out by catching Russia up with industrialization, modernization of the army, and creating a new senate Russia still ended up about 200 years behind the rest of Europe.
    Poland is also considered a loser at this time because they were invaded by Sweden and attacked by Russia. These two attacks left Poland divided and population losses began due to the constant warfare. Eventually Poland became smaller and smaller until suddenly it was nothing, Poland disappeared off the map.
    Another loser at this time was Portugal. The Portuguese had captured Ceuta, but that began to drain the treasury in Portugal, so they tried attacking another city but eventually were forced to sign a treaty which gave Ceuta back to the Marinids. Portugal also discovered Brazil which was a positive for the small country. Marques de Pombal also came into some power and he tended to rule with a heavy hand which was hard on all levels of the Portuguese society. There were several other areas that brought Portugal down as well, such as excessive spending by the king, the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and an attempt to assassinate King Jose I.
    Spain started off well and because of their explorations and discovery of gold they became one of the richest countries in the world. The king and queen funded Christopher Columbus’ exploration and gained a lot of land overseas after further discoveries. Spain began to fall because of debts due to wars, they had been having problems controlling their land overseas, not all religions were being tolerated anymore, and parts of their empire were being lost.
    Sweden is considered a loser because of the Great Northern War. Sweden lost most of their sea trade routes, and they also lost all supremacy in the Baltic Sea after the death of their king. The war ended in present day Ukraine, with the destruction of the main Swedish army.
    The Ottoman Empire was very powerful at the beginning of their reign, but they eventually tried to overextend their reach into Europe. This empire also became less religiously tolerant and they turned inward. After that there was a series of wars that broke the Ottoman Empire into several different areas and then it completely died off in World War I.
    The last two countries left are the Netherlands and Italy. The Netherlands ruled a lot of land, but they lost the majority of it and split into two different countries. They also relied on overseas trade for their main income, but eventually things such as slave trade decreased and the Dutch went bankrupt. Italy did not gain much power until the late 1800’s. They were mostly brought down by the Italian Wars which caused them to split into various states and countries.
    In conclusion all of these countries, no matter how they may have started off, eventually fell into the losers category because of either too many losses, not being able to keep up with the times, or not being able to hold and control their land.

  17. 1/30/15
    Scribe: #12
    Today in class we went over the test and discussed some study strategies to help get better test scores. Try study groups, actively engaging in class, and taking good notes to learn the information the first time. Students who have people 1-6 have to have all of their information for Monday. Everyone needs to know who their person is and have their prop. for Monday. Things you should know about your people are who they are?, where they are from?, when they lived?, and what they are famous for?. You should focused most of your time on what they are famous for and their significance. In two weeks we will have salon day where you will dress as your person either symbolically or historically.
    Also today we started on the next chapter with a short introduction. What did people think of the world in 1400? We address some different things including geography, earth, magic, and religion. In the 1400s Catholicism was the only religion. Magic was a very real thing. Everyone believed in fairies, witches, and leprechauns. All uneducated people believe the Earth was flat and you would fall off if you got too close to the edge. People in Europe didn’t know much about geography. They knew of Europe, a little bit of Asia, and a little bit of Africa. The Americas, much of Asia, and much of Africa was not discovered by the Europeans yet.
    The mid 1400s also started the Age of Explorations.

  18. 2/3/15
    Scribe Day 13
    The first four people discussed in class today were Ptolemy, Copernicus, Brahe, and Kepler. Ptolemy was an astronomer and was the starting point in studying astronomy. His ideas stated that the earth is the center of the universe, planets go around in circles around the earth, and described different kinds of orbits. Ptolemy created the first longitude and latitude grid and miscalculated the size of the earth.
    Copernicus studied astrology which is how what he studied effects people. According to his ideas, earth was not the center of the earth, the planets orbited the sun in a perfect circle, and he figured out how seasons are caused. He wrote a book based off his findings which people started believing. Up until his findings, people believed Ptolemy’s findings. His findings were considered the most important because they were considered the beginning of the scientific revolution.
    Brahe invented astronomy instruments. At the time, his instruments were the most accurate ones because they were the only instruments they had. He made the best and biggest instruments, at the time. The instruments he made were used to see where the planets were which gave him the opportunity to make the best charts of the planets.
    Kepler created three laws and which were correct about how the solar system actually works.
    Note: if you didn’t bring your prop today bring it tomorrow and know your person. There will be random quizzes and you will have to know your person to answer questions in class.

  19. 2/9/2015
    Scribe Number 17
    Today in class we talked about witches and how really anyone could be targeted for being a witch. At first it was elderly ladies because they are somewhat crazy and they talk to their animals. Some of these animals they talk to could be a cat and back then people used to think that whenever someone talked to a cat they were trying to communicate with the devil. Cats back then used to go into the woods and would talk to the devil. Also the elderly lady might talk to herself after her husband passed away so if someone walked by the house and saw the lady talking to herself that might think that they are casting a spell on a person or the town they are in. People back then used to think when nature disasters happen it was because of the local witch causing them.

    About 80,000 people were falsely convicted of being a witch. Most of these convictions were to gain from the now dead witch. Some of the convictions were so the house the person lived in or the land they had would be up for grabs from the towns people. Once people started to think that the nobles of the country were witches is when it started to end. The reason people thought they nobles were witches because how else would they of gotten their power? They probably did some spell to make it so they got famous or had all of this power.

    Even today we have the belief that there are things that couldn't happen happen. For example some people believe in ghosts or aliens from other planets. There is evidence for both of these myths but not everyone believes in them. That's how it was back then, just everyone believed in witches and that spells were real. Today we know that spells and witches aren't real, but maybe in a hundred years someone could bring up the fact that ghosts and aliens are or aren't real. Then the cycle could keep repeating itself.


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  21. 2/6/15
    Scribe #15

    On this day, we discussed Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes and their ways of scientific thinking. As everyone knows, there are multiple ways of thinking about the same thing; Bacon and Descartes prove this to be true, but first let’s starts with Bacon.

    Bacon is known as the father of modern science and he had three goals: uncover the truth, serve his country, and serve his church. The main reason Bacon is so incredibly famous today is because he is the one who came up with the idea of the scientific theory. Without him, we probably would not have this. He believes that we should base our ideas on facts. This makes sense because he uses inductive reasoning which is supplying strong evidence for the conclusion. Bacon also does not believe in math, but rather magic, which is really weird because there is usually math involved with science.

    On the flip side, Descartes disagrees with Bacon. While Bacon used inductive reasoning, Descartes used deductive reasoning. This is logical process where ideas are assumed to be true; they are not tested. He believes there is another way to do things so he does his own thing instead of branching off of Bacon. We use this thinking today, but not in science. He also likes to think that there’s more to life than what you can think and prove. As his most famous quote goes, “I think therefore I am.”


  22. 2/10/15
    Scribe day 17
    Today we talked about 7 philosophers. Diderot, Kant, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Wollstonecraft, Beccaria, and Smith we mentioned and all had a part of our discussion in class. Diderot is the co editor of the encyclopedia. He believed that all the knowledge of the world should be in these books. He was arrested for these ideas and wanted to come up with a way to not get in trouble with the Church or the King.
    Kant was a German professor who taught religious subjects. He was a critique of pure reason and studied space and time. He had an idea that came from a balance of both Bacon and Descartes. Kant's idea was that things that can't be proven are still true. He also had an idea that you are born knowing right from wrong. Kant didn't know if there was a God, but you can't prove it either way.
    Montesquieu is a French philosopher and he wrote Spirit of Laws. He created the idea of the separation of powers. This is what we use now to balance out our government.
    Rousseau is the third person to come up with the social contract, but the first to write a book over it. This was a banned book. Rousseau was very multi-dimensional and had very different ideas about a bunch of different things.
    Wollstonecraft was the very first feminist and unlike Rousseau, she believed a woman can do anything a man can do. She wrote many books about her ideas and really wanted women to be educated.
    Beccaria is an Italian who studied criminology. He believed people would act out of self interest. He also believed that the punishment should fit the crime. Stealing a loaf of bread should not result in you getting beaten to death. This idea resulted in no cruel and unusual punishment in the rights we have today.
    Last but not least, Smith is from England. He is known as the father of capitalism. He wrote The Wealth of Nations, which set the idea of supply in demand. This idea is essential in the lives we have today, this is the way we work!

    ^^^^^^^^^shows enlightenment philosophers-explains really well goes into most of the people talked about above.

    Assignment-What does a salon mean?

  23. 2/4/15
    Scribe #14

    On this day we discussed Galileo, Newton, Priestly, and Lavoisier. Galileo was an astronomer. Prior to Galileo their was Copernicus. Copernicus was the first to come up with the heliocentric theory. However, he was unable to prove it. That is where Galileo comes in. Galileo was able to prove that the sun is at the center of the universe by creating his own telescope and observing.
    Isaac Newton is a great physician. In fact, everything we do today falls under Newton's three laws of motion. The first law of motion states that an object in motion will stay in motion, while an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force. His second law says that force= mass times acceleration. Lastly, their is Newton's third law. This law states that for every action their is an equal and opposite reaction.
    Priestly is famous for the discovery of oxygen and that air is a mixture of substances. Another chemist of the time is Lavoisier. Lavoisier is one of the fathers of modern chemistry. He is famous for the discovery of numerous elements on the periodic table.

    For further information on the above people check out:

  24. 2/12/15
    Scribe #18

    Salon day is tomorrow 2/12. Dress can either be purely symbolic or dress in time period of your philosopher. Know your character and be creative. A notecard with information can be brought, but being your character is key. Tell different stories and information to different people. Prizes will be given for the best costume and best character. Salon day is about mingling with each other as your character.
    What is a Salon? A social gathering hosted by wealthy lady in Paris in 1700’s to 1900’s. This is a chance to hear about enlightened philosophers new ideas. Women are allowed to host, but are not allowed to many other things like making intellectual thoughts.
    After mentioning Salon day, we went through more people involved in the philosophical enlightenment. Religion pre-enlightenment was that you did what the church said. Enlightenment made people think that it is possible to question the church and organize new religious ideas. Deism is the religious idea that God created the universe, and then he took a step back because the world was as he wanted it. Montesquieu and Thomas Jefferson were deists. The Jewish philosopher Mendelsohn decided that Jewish people should integrate into society and that more than one religion can lead you to God.
    Thomas Paine was the last person. Common Sense was the most famous book that he wrote. This book was about the Revolutionary War, and he inspired many Americans that it was common sense to split away from Britain. He started out as Christian morphed into a deist and ended up being an atheist. Being an atheist during this time was not a good time. People were ready for gradual religious toleration, but they were not ready for no God at all.
    One last reminder for Salon day! Be the person who you were assigned to and stay in character.

    This is a short video about deism in the enlightenment.

  25. 2/13/15
    Scribe #19

    Today was Salon day. Everyone dressed up like their character and had to be in character the whole class period. Everyone had great costumes and could explain themselves and what their character's greatest discovery or invention is. Everyone that I talked to knew what there person did and they stayed in character the whole time. The salon was a great hit. Other classes stopped by to see what we were doing.
    A Salon was when rich women would get together in a big meeting to share their ideas. Back in the Enlightenment that's how they were come up with a bunch of question's was to have a Salon and invite a bunch of people and discuss ideas. That was one of our assignments on Tuesday was to know what the meaning of a Salon was, so when we returned to class on Wednesday we could discuss what we were doing on Thursday. This was the definition that I have found about the Salon: A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held partly to amuse one another and partly to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation. At the end of class people wrote nomination's on who was best dressed and who presented the best or basically who knew their character very well. The winners of best dressed was Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Austin Stoelk) and the winner for best character was Thomas Aquinas (Cooper LaRue). Congrats to those guys. Everyone, in my opinion, should have one because they all great costumes and were in character for the entire class period.

    Mr. Pauk said at the end of the Salon that everyone did a great job and that he was impressed with everyone's effort to become the role of their character.

    A reminder that also the test over this whole chapter over everyone's character the enlightenment age is either Friday the 20th or Monday the 23rd!! So start studying now!

    Here is a link to videos and pictures of last years Salon https://sites.google.com/site/mrpauksclassroom/

  26. 2/13/15
    Scribe #20

    Today was the day after Salon day, which went very well. Mr. Pauk assigned each row to research a different person in chapter 17. (Joseph, Frederick, Catherine) The concept of enlightened despotism was discussed. It means you believe in new ideas but also want to maintain control in an absolute monarchy, which slightly contradicts itself. We then split the room in half and got into circles/ellipses for our socratic seminar. The questions were on the smartboard for us to talk over in our groups. Everyone was to participate at least 7 good thoughts to stay caught up with participation. If you were not there, you have some work to do to catch back up. For questions, we expressed our own opinions as well as our salon person’s thoughts/views. At least half of the questions dealt with religion and how things have changed for the better since this time period. Reasons were asked for why the churches were so against the enlightenment and revolution and my group concluded that it was mainly because they didn’t want to lose their power because of other ideas/religions establishing. The last question discussed was over the topic miracles. Was it easier to believe in them back then or today? My group agreed that it was probably easier to believe back then because they don’t have the answers and explanations we do now.

    For more information over enlightened despotism, watch this video

  27. Again very well done. Make sure you know what day you have and post in a timely fashion!

  28. 12/17/15
    Scribe #21
    Today we came to class with some research about the Colombian Exchange. We discussed the most important items that moved from the Old World to the New World and vice versa. The biggest thing that came from the Americas was sugar. Sugar went from being a luxury to being a staple, it made the food in Europe much better and made the people who owned the plantations very rich. Sugar was actually already available in Europe just couldn't be grown there, but was well suited to the climate of Caribbean island. An owner would go to the Americas make their money from sugar trade, with slaves as the workers, and then the owner would return to Europe very wealthy. The two most important things that were transferred to the new world were diseases and animals. Diseases like measles and small pox wiped out around 90% of the Native Americans. Animals, like cows, sheep, and horses that were domesticated in the Old World were brought to the New World. Other important things that made the journey were We then briefly discussed the Revolutionary War before breaking into groups to work on our projects that posed the questions of why did the revolution happen, why is it a revolution and not just a rebellion, and how would the rest of the world view the war as opposed to the American view.

    Summary of Colombian Exchange:

  29. Scribe day #23

    Today in class we finished out projects on the American Revolution. The American Revolution isn’t just for American History class, in Western Civ we study what was brought back to Western Europe and how it affected it there. Also what new concepts were brought from the American Revolution, my group came up with three large ideas. First was government, American Revolution created a new kind of government called Democracy and has shown its flying colors for 239 years now. Second was equality, the “Every man is created Equal”. This was an enormous new idea that people of this time couldn’t fathom how great this was. Finally was rights, the immense amount of new rights and ideas brought about from this revolution impacted everyone. Freedom of speech, press, and EVEN Religion, wow what a change from Great Britain at this time period.
    After our American Revolution projects finished we began on a different activity pertaining to the different colonies. French, Spanish, and British colonies were very different from eachother. Spanish colonies were among the most harsh to live in at this time. Spanish colonies were an absolute monarchy government, had to Roman Catholic, and the laws so very strict it was hard to not break the laws. French colonies were better than Spanish colonies, but not by a large amount. French colonies did have a lot of laws and rules, but they were so loosely governed that they could kind of do whatever they wanted to. Taxes were very high in both spanish and french colonies. British colonies were without a doubt the best to live in, there were a lot of freedoms you had. You could worship whatever religion you wanted, there was no taxes, there was free trade among all the colonies. Life was very good there. American revolution impacted more than just America, it made changes all over the world.

    Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlUiSBXQHCw

    Test is Friday, Study Up!

  30. Scribe #24
    Friday February 19th
    Today in class we wrapped up our American Revolution projects which included the causes of the revolution, and why we are studying it in Western Civilization. The American revolution had two main causes, the enlightened ideas that the Americans studied and wanted to try, and the attempt of Britain to tax and control the colonies. In Western Civilization, we look at the revolution through a worldview rather than an American one. As well as studying the influence the revolution had on the rest of the world.
    Our next point of Discussion was the slave trade. First we discussed how the slaves came to be slaves. African slaves were sold by other African tribes in exchange for weapons. Their trip over to the Americas was brutal, and was filled with sickness,death, and cramped spaces. Once they got to America, they were treated very harshly but worked better than any previous slaves because they were used to the type of climate. Also their was a major exchange culturally between the Africans and the White Americans. To end class we reviewed all of the people from the salon. Test is tomorrow, so make sure to prepare.

    Slavery: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr4.html

    To quiz yourself on the people: http://quizlet.com/1411938/people-of-the-scientific-revolution-and-enlightenment-ch-18-flash-cards/

  31. This comment has been removed by the author.

  32. 2/24/15
    Scribe #26

    Today in western civ we started watching a video over the French Revolution and took notes. The French Revolution was the most important event that occurred in western history. We discussed feudalism, which is when the peasants of an area are all controlled by the lord of that land, but the peasants don’t fight against his control because he protects them from their enemies. By 1787, the world has outgrown feudalism because the lords are no longer protecting the peasants, but they are still controlling the peasants.
    We also discussed how the French Revolution really disposed of a lot of things such as, the king, the Catholic Church, and nobility. We talked about how Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were not strong rulers. We also talked about a question made by historians; if France had had a better king at this time would there have ever been a revolution?
    Louis XVI didn’t care about having an heir, or ruling at all for that matter, but the people were concerned that there wouldn’t be an heir and that the country would go into chaos when Louis died. Louis knew that he was not prepared to rule and he wasn’t very smart or decisive either. After the death of king Louis XV, Louis XVI was crowned king of France by the Pope (this is because of divine right). As King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette began their rule, the new age of enlightenment begins to rise as well.


  33. 2/27/15
    Scribe #27

    Today in Western Civ we continued watching the video we started earlier in the week. So far in the video we have been learning about what events happened that lead to the start of the French Revolution. We learned that one of the major events happened, was the raise of prices on flour. To us, the raising of some prices would not be that big of a deal, but to the commoners at this time it was an event that affected them greatly. Due to the raise of prices, the peasants were not able to buy the flour to make one of the key ingredients in their diet. The shortage on bread started a huge frenzy through the towns since the people were starving since they had no money to buy other basic foods they needed such as meat or vegetables.
    Another key thing that we talked about in class was the three different estates. The three estates are Clergy, Nobles, and peasants. But what is really interesting is that the Clergy and the Nobles are classified as almost the same, and they make up around roughly three percent of the population at this time. The Peasants however make up around the other 97% of the population. The peasants are considered very poor, and completely underneath the other two estates. And the Peasants also pay the majority of the taxes that France has put in place. The Clergy and the Nobles are considered very well of financially, and are also not forced to pay much taxes, or they don't even have to pay taxes at all. Below is a link to help learn about the three different estates and help clarify them.


  34. February 27, 2015
    Scribe #28

    In today's class, we started off by talking about the meeting of the Estates General (May 1789). The Estates General consisted of some civilians from the Noble class, the Clergy, and the Third Estate. The people of the Third Estate knew that this was unfair because overall, the clergy and noble’s word would overpower anything the people of the Third Estate would say. Due to this fact, the number of people from the Third Estate taking part in this meeting was tripled.
    After this, the Third Estate decided to form their own National Assembly (May 1789). Some people of the noble class and the clergy were in favor of this idea, so they joined the National Assembly.
    These meetings were always held in the Palace of Versailles, but one day when they went to the palace to meet, they discovered that the door was locked and they assumed that the king was locking them out (most historians believe that a janitor forgot to unlock the door.) The people then decided to meet at the tennis courts (actually a handball court), so they could carry on their scheduled meeting. During this meeting they decided that they did have the power to defy King Louis.

    Another topic discussed in class, was the storming of The Bastille (July 14). The Bastille was a place where kings would send political prisoners. The mob needed to get to The Bastille because they were rioting and they had all the equipment they needed (guns, etc.) but they were missing gunpowder, and The Bastille was home to the town’s supply of gunpowder. The governor of The Bastille tries to lockdown the building from the mob, but the mob breaks through. During this time, Louis was away on a hunting trip. This action was an act of defiance towards the king, and it was also a success. The people of the town then tore down The Bastille, brick by brick.
    This event lead to the writing of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. This document demanded equal rights for everyone (all men are equal) and the elimination of the absolute monarchy.

    John Paul Marat was a writer who was in favor of violence and bloodshed during the revolution. He was the source of revolutionary news for everyone. On October 2, 1789, he writes a story about the royals throwing a huge party, and during which, took the new flag of the Assembly, threw it on the ground, and stomped on it.

    The Great Fear: Late Summer 1789 - During this time, France had the abolition of Feudal Rights. This gave everyone legal equality. This meant that it didn’t matter if you were a “noble”, if you were to commit a crime, you would be punished the same way a commoner would be punished.


  35. March 3, 2015
    Scribe #30

    Today in Western Civ, we continued to watch the French Revolution video. We started off talking about Marie Antoinette who let the people eat cake. At this time, cake was not the cake we think of. Cake was basically bread with literally anything in it, but she did not care if others had it. She made women angry, which triggered the March on Versailles. Everyone wants the Royal family to go to Paris, and the King and Queen are forced to do so while taking decorated heads of their guards of whom the attacking women had killed. This is HUGE; the king and queen are now basically the ones scared, and the power is now with the people. Robespierre takes over and is now basically known as incorruptible, and France is a constitutional monarchy. Although this happens, it does not solve all the problems in a year and a half and many issues still are present such as poverty and starvation of people.

    In 1791, Louis tries to go back and take France back over. He and his family go 100 miles east of France, but are caught when asked to look at passports. People see him as escaping, so he is forced to go back to Paris; in Paris again, but he does not get killed right away like many think. The guillotine is also created and this time of killing is known as efficient, quick, and painless for execution. Killing was also done by drunk people swinging axes and missing numerous times. They were normally drunk because what sober man would just start killing with an ax?! The guillotine made the process painless and quick, as I said.

    While in "rule," Robespierre is against the death penalty and is basically a chicken. He does not want to go to war because he fears losing and that would end the revolution. In reality though, France ends up going to war. When Prussia helps Austria in the war against France, Marie Antoinette is thought of as helping her family's country (Austria) and then King Louis is executed. France is now has a French Republic government and people like Georges Jacques Danton. He is the most important person of this time (NEED TO KNOW HIM) and is known for inspiring people with speeches and more to get people to join France's army. Without him, France would be destroyed greatly. Marat writes in his newspapers for prisoners to be let loose and slaughter anyone in their way.

    In France, there are also two groups that act as "political parties" for France. The two groups are the Jacobins and the Girondins; the Jacobins are more radical and are people like Pierre who want to execute the king, have the reign of terror, etc. The Girondins are just the opposite and are more moderate. There are also the Sancullotes which are the 3rd estate people who refuse to wear coolates and just end up basically wearing work clothes that are not the normal clothes of everyone else. The end up taking over the LOCAL government as well and they thought of themselves as the true people of France. Also the National Convention turns into Assembly, and thanks to this, we are able to have our left wings be liberal and our right wings be conservative, for the most part in our world today. Below is a clip that is like a part of the video and talked of the execution of Louis XVI.

  36. March 4, 2015
    Scribe #31

    Today in Western Civ we watched the movie over the French Revolution and discussed the Areas of our notes that the movie never really talked about. First what we discussed was how people thought that the Revolution may be over due to the fact the King was stripped of his power. Next we talked about how the Church was not taxable, but yet France needed more land so they seized portions of the land belonging to the Church. Also what we talked about was the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which the Clergy were told that they owed their loyalty to France and no longer to the Pope. This angered many people that France was taking away their priest.

    Also we talked about the process of writing the constitutions. The process of writing them was a slow process and took much time for them to make sure that it would meet the standards of the Assembly. The first one included a King and was still based on the amount of land one owned for voting. When they had finished this Constitution they had to scrape it because the now wanted on with out a King. The process was repeated and they took their time once again to see that it was sufficient for France. Through out the Revolution there were many different day-to-day laws that were placed on the people of France and many more enlightened actions were occurring in France now.

    Next in the movie we learned that Robespierre had a change of heart and no longer believed their was room for a King in France. Louis was put on trial, the Girondins did not believe that it was necessary to kill the king but the Jacobin on the matter out numbered them. The final result of the trial was that the King would be put to death. At this point we talked about other revolutions that were non violent and had peaceful leaders such as MLK or Mandela. Their revolutions called for nonviolence and these were relatively successful.

    Now we find out from the movie that the enemies of the revolution are looking for the head of Jean-Paul Marat. They blame Jean-Paul for the deaths of the thousands of Frenchmen When the Girodins want to slow the violence of the Revolution Jean-Paul then argue against them. He prints names of the people of the Girondins that he believes are plotting against the revolution. We talked about how Robespierre and Marat needed to point out traitors, they needed someone to blame the mistakes being made during the revolution. This happened because things were not going smoothly in France.

    Marat was stabbed in the chest while taking one of his medicinal baths for his skin. The women who did this act was Charlotte Corde, she did the stabbing because she believed that Marat was responsible for thousands of deaths through out the revolution. Then after Marat's death friends of the Revolution tried to make Marat the new Christ. This was an attempt t weaken the Catholic Church in France and help the Revolution.

    Then we got to Marie Antoinette. She was already in custody of the Revolutionist and was put on trial under the accusations of high treason and also incest with her own son. Marie is found guilty of treason against France and is sentenced to death by guillotine. Marie was the last queen of France and now with her and King Louis dead the Revolution is primed for one of its deadliest stages yet.

    This Link is about Marie and her life. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ZHu4ni2OWA
    This link is about the Guillotine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qi6TTn35BrY

  37. March 3
    Scribe #32

    Today in class, we finished watching the French Revolution video. The video started off right when the Queen was being executed as well as the rest of the kings colleagues. France was also being torn apart by surrounding countries. Danton and Robespierre wanted to strike out and save the Revolution.This period was called the Terror.

    Police spies were sent out all throughout Paris and any innocent person could get sent to the guillotine. Everyone in France was now a citizen. If you would use any different name that would add more power to someone, they were put to death. They had death carts rolling around Paris because so many people were losing their lives. There were always innocent people to pick up in the death carts.

    We discussed in class how it was ironic that so many innocent people are losing there lives after they had just signed the Declaration of the Rights of Man. If you are caused guilty, there is really no way t prove yourself not guilty. The judges are random people off the street, and most people with a trial are caused guilty. Some people were executed just for complaining about the amount of bread they had, or if they were not enthusiastic enough about the Revolution.

  38. A twelve man counsel was formed and they were called The Committee of Public Safety. Robespierre was the most fierce and powerful voice in the committee. He wanted more blood and he overused the death penalty. He also wanted to destroy the power of the Catholic Church. The church was attacked, stain glass windows were smashed, and the Christian calendar was destroyed. Religious icons were destroyed and no Saints were talked about any longer. The reason for this was because the Church was against science and the Revolution.We discussed in class that they wanted to be more enlightened, and that was hard to do when the church was in charge of what religion you studied, that they were a major part in government and anointed the kings, what books you could read, who you can marry, and it pretty much just controls your life. The terror continued to spread across France. Hundreds of rebels were tied up, shot, and they were tied up with priest and sunk on a boat.

    In the movie, We also saw that the French were starting to see victories. The Terror reached their goal, but Robespierre did not want it to stop. He wanted to use the terror and fear to mold a Republic government, but Danton disagreed. He thought the revolution was starting to go the wrong way. He wanted to stop the terror in France. He did make an impact on the people, and in the spring of 1794 it started to calm down. That did not last long.

    Robespierre thought it was calming down to soon. He saw it as a direct threat to treason and a threat towards the government. He sentenced Danton and his followers to death for trying to end the Revolution earlier than he wanted. The Great Terror was now introduced in Paris. In one month, Robespierre sentenced 800 deaths with the guillotine. People were afraid for the lives.

    The people did not trust Robespierre, but they couldn’t change what had happened. In June 1794, he gave a speech in front of the convention with a new list of executions. The worst part was that he wasn’t going to tell them who was on the list until the next day. The people got very upset with him, and very paranoid. The next day, before he could even read the names, he was taken and thrown in jail. He was later executed by the guillotine.

    There was no real ending to the Revolution. Some people thought it was right when they had chopped off Robespierre's head, others are still wondering. For about the next five years, there was an uncertainty in France, until the man by the name of Napoleon rose in the government. We discussed in class how the Revolution a parted from the feudal power of Europe and to me, it showed that France seemed like one of the biggest powers in the world, but they were not perfect, and had way more problems then they led on. We also discussed that there were many changes in Paris during and after the Revolution, but many of those changes did not last. For example, when Christianity was destroyed and a new calendar was formed, they abandoned the new calendar and went back tot the Christian one. Most of the changes in Paris were not permanent.

    We also have Chapter 18 discussion questions due tomorrow!

    This is a video recapping everything we have learned about the Revolution

    Since we finished the video learning about the French Revolution today, I thought we could add this song since we finally know what it means! :)

  39. Day #22
    Today we were in our groups and talked about where we would want to live during the american revolution. We talked about Spain, France, and Britain. We talked about the freedoms they had and the type of government they had. We decided Britain was the number one place we all wanted to live, then Spain, then France. Britain had almost all the freedoms, and they had a government, but they never really ‘checked’ up on them. Spain also had some freedom, but they had an absolute monarchy. France had no religious freedom and an absolute monarchy, as to why they were last on the list. The countries are trying to get the colonies ‘put together’ over in America, and have the best type of government for each colony.


  40. Today in Western Civ., we how the corrupt Directory ran France, between the French Revolution, and Napolean taking over. We then got in groups and answered the review questions to test our knowledge on the French Revolution in groups. Some websites to help you review the French Revolution are: http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution

  41. Scribe #9
    Today in class we discussed Britain’s influence in the Industrial Revolution. One of the reasons Britain was the first country to have the Industrial Revolution was social mobility. Britain had a less strict government than most countries, and France has not had it’s revolution yet. Britain was ruled under a constitutional monarchies so it was easy for commoners to make money and make a name for themselves. The king was not ruling over them. This gave most people an incentive to do well and be successful in their country, leading to an increase in workers and employers.
    Other factors that led to the Industrial Revolution were education and religion. Britain was an Anglican country with strong Calvinist influences. Britain was ahead of it’s time in public education. Education in Britain was very Anglican-based, meaning you could not be a Calvinist and go to an Anglican school. This led to the Calvinists creating their own colleges, which was based off of more practical curriculum. Anglican colleges were there to expand students’ knowledge. Calvinist colleges are what most colleges are based off of today. Students could specializing in one area in order to get a job. Calvinists were also very strong workers. Their religion causes them to be very disciplined with a strong work ethic. When a Calvinist is successful and works hard, they are viewed as going to Heaven and are favored by God. Therefore, Calvinists were more likely to work hard in order to gain God’s favor.
    Britain’s location was also a key factor in the Industrial Revolution. Being on an island, it was nearly impossible to invade Britain. The country didn’t need to spend so much on defense and were able to spend more money on other practical things. Britain was also located next to the richest places in the world, who they could trade with through water routes, which were prominent in Britain. However, one drawback was the limited amount of farmland. With the help of the agriculture revolution, Britain became more productive in producing better farmland and more crops, and was able to sustain itself better.
    During the Industrial Revolution, life wasn’t great for workers. More than likely, every member of a working family could be found working at the same factory, for long hours of the day. Unskilled and uneducated workers did physical labor for 12+ hours of the day, six days a week. Educated workers led much better lives.

  42. April 7
    Scribe #14

    Today we talked about our chapter 22 project. After discussing the requirements we were put into our groups for a little while to talk about how we were going to do this project. Then we left our groups and began to discuss chapter 21 as a class. In chapter 21 we talked about various key people and points including Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, and Bentham. Smith was the founder of capitalism. He also created laissez faire. Laissez faire means people decide how much they pay for items and get paid. Malthus's big idea was overpopulation. He believed that the world was going to overpopulate and they wouldn't be able to feed everyone. That is where Ricardo comes into play. Ricardo believes in the Iron Law of Wages. The Iron Law of Wages says that workers should be payed poorly. This will cause people to die off because they won't be able to afford food, so the world will not overpopulate. Bentham's key idea is utilitarianism. Bentham thinks that decisions should be based on what is most useful. He believes that government should do the math when making decisions. They should weigh the good and the bad, then make their decision based off of that information. After we discussed these important people we talked about what community we should live in. These communities included: Saint Simon, Fourier, and Owen. Saint Simon wanted workers to be treated better and guided capitalism. This guided capitalism was going to be run by experts on economics to guide the economy. Owen wanted kids to go to school, workers to work shorter days, and Utopian cities. Fourier wanted equality and feminism. He also had the idea to change tasks, so you will be a better, happier worker.

  43. April 9th
    Scribe #16
    Today in class we talked about what the average person was like back in the 1850's-1900's lived like. We discussed many points, for example life was starting to get better for the average Joe. People were starting to get higher working wages and they could actually feed their families for once. The gap between the upper class and the lower class started to get closer together. Even though its still a far distance away, but its slowly closing. Also we talked about what we didn't know in the science field. We didn't know very much until the 1900's, but even if life was getting better the chances of getting an illness is still pretty high. If you got shot during a war the only thing they knew of what to do is to cut your leg off and hope for the best. If that body part gets infected they will start to cut more and more off. It's just a never ending cycle of your getting something cut off if you get shot.

    We also worked on our projects. For my project I have Russia. In Russia during the 1850's they were going through a lot of reforms. During the reforms the king of Russia got assassinated. Which caused the next king in power to stop the reforms and go back to the cruel punishments and an absolute monarchy. Which is what caused the revolution of 1905. Which ended with the Russian Constitution, which limited the kings power.


  44. Scribe Day #18

    The first item on our list was taking a short quiz about the theory of Charles Darwin’s evolution. Everyone missed the second question on the quiz asking your belief about the theory of evolution. There is no question about believing in the theory of evolution because it is a scientific theory. Belief is about God or no God.
    Darwin lives in Enlightened and scientific country of England. HMS Beagle in 1831 is circumnavigating the world in a 5 year trip of mapping and geological formations. Collecting thousands of specimens around the world. Notices animals that are similar to each other. Darwin starts questioning the age of the Earth. He is scared about publishing his controversial theory. Works on the theory of evolution for over 25 years to make sure his math was perfect and as accurate as possible. Darwin’s theory of evolution starts with a variation within a species. Survival of the fittest takes place with the good and bad mutations. The good mutation reproduces and its offspring have the advantageous mutation. Different environments produce different mutations of the species, so the animal is most productive in that environment. Works with all living things. This theory comes from the book Origin of the Species.
    The importance of theory of evolution adapted medicine to the bacteria. Bacteria evolves faster than humans. This is due to their production of reproduced bacteria faster. Bacteria reproduce in a matter of days. It would take millennia for humans to adapt to the bacteria. The theory does not work if the Earth is only 4,000-6,000 years old.